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Thursday, August 9, 2012

The life of great hero Giuseppe Garibaldi - 9th Part

3) The Roman republic and the death of Anita with his second exile (1849-1858)

On 23 June 1848, after 14 years of absence, Garibaldi lands in Nice with his companions war has already begun.
 On 29th of the same month he leaves Nice for Genoa with 150 volunteers. Garibaldi, whose reputation has preceded his coming, offers his sword to the King of Sardinia, while repeating that he is a Republican, anxious at first to fight against the Austrians. Charles Albert was challenged by Democrats who suspect him of wanting to annex the Milanese State, and have not committed when the Austrians were driven out.

When Garibaldi, which has always kept in touch with the Italian patriots, learns the changes taking place in Italy, inauguration of liberal Pope Pius IX, insurgency in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, he is so anxious to get back to Italy, especially as peace seems imminent in Montevideo. He leaves the Italian legion in the hands of Antonio Susin.

In January 1848, Anita returned to Nice with his children followed by Garibaldi in April along with 63 companions while initially 150 men were to follow.

In the late nineteenth century, Montevideo has six streets in the name of the hero and the country has at least five monuments. July 4, 1907, the centenary of the birth of Garibaldi, President José Batlle y Ordóñez decreed a national holiday commemoration in front of 40,000 people. On June 2, 1882, five days before the death of the hero, the Círculo Legionarios Garibaldinos  is created which still exists as an association.

Europe experienced during the year 1848, a series of revolutions by which the people demand more freedom, and is known as the springtime of the peoples. It begins in France and gave birth to the Second Republic, extends to Germany, Romania, Hungary, Poland and Austria. States of the Italian peninsula, the Papal States, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Sardinia Kingdom of Piedmont are engaged in constitutional reforms. Milan at the "Five Days of Milan", known to turn his insurgent movement against the Austrian Empire which then directs the Lombard-Venetian kingdom created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. King Charles Albert of Sardinia, were initially supported by some states of the peninsula, taking up the cause of the Milanese state and declares war on Austria.

On 5th of July  our hero goes to  Roverbella  near Mantua, to offer himself as a volunteer with the King Charles Albert, who receives him without enthusiasm and refuses to see him fight alongside the regular army. Garibaldi goes to the provisional government of Milan that made him a General and where  he finds Mazzini. Although there have been exchanges of mail, the atmosphere of the game is cold, the two men are on divergent paths; Mazzini aims unitary republican revolution, Garibaldi wishing to free themselves from Austrian has chosen to put aside, temporarily, the Republican ideas.

Garibaldi must join Brescia with the legion which he organized and which he calls "Battaglione Italiano della Morte" (Italian Battalion of Death) when takes place theCustoza's defeat of Piedmont,   on 25 July. On 9 August 1848, an armistice was concluded between Austria and Piedmont, that Garibaldi violently reproached Charles Albert.

Garibaldi refuses to stop fighting despite the king's order and called on the youth: "Italy needs you ... Hasten, concentrate around me." It gets a little success over the Austrians who decide to destroy them, he must also renounce to face of Austrian power. On August 27, Garibaldi goes to Switzerland and then to France to join Nice. On Harsh, commander of the second Austrian army composed of 20,000 men, is impressed enough to praise him during a meeting with an Italian magistrate, "the man who would powerfully served your cause, you did not recognize: He's Garibaldi. "

In September, Garibaldi was elected Member of Parliament for the college of Cicagna, near Chiavari, he joined Genoa on 26 after passing through various locations throughout the reception was enthusiastic. It follows a period of uncertainty: where to intervene? He decides to join Sicily, changes his mind, and thinks to resist returning to Venice  but when he is on his way, he is informed of  the departure of Pope Pius IX to Gaeta,  and decided to join Rome. Indeed, after having supported the Milanese's, Pius IX turns around and points his troops, causing anger among Italian patriots.

 He appoints prime minister Pellegrino Rossi but he's assassinated on November 15, paving the way for the riot, the flight of the Pope and the proclamation of the Roman Republic.

... to be continued...

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