last moon

Saturday, August 18, 2012

The life of great hero G. Garibaldi - 12th Part

4) The Epic of the Red Shirts (1859-1861)

If Garibaldi is the leon, brave and combative, Cavour is the fox, wily and wait!

Cavour, President of the Council of the Kingdom of Sardiniaand Piedmont,  decides to engage his army in the Crimean War to be closer to the France of Napoleon III. Following the maintenance of   the Treaty of Franco-Sardinian,  Cavour gets an assistance agreement with France in the event of aggression Austria.
Thus Cavour develops a series of provocations, and Austria fell into the trap.

On april 26, 1859, Austria opened hostilities against the Piedmont, which triggers the execution of the terms of the Franco-Sardinian alliance. On April 27, 1859, the Austrians crossed the border near Ticino, and the same day, the French crossed the Alps.

Cavour and  Garibaldi met for the first time in 1856. In 1858-1859 Cavour  plans to use in the war actively preparing, placing Garibaldi at the head of volunteers. He recruited 3200 men who become, March 17, the body of hunters in the Alps under the authority of General Cialdini, Garibaldi was appointed major-general. He meets for the first time Victor Emmanuel II.

The relationship between Garibaldi and Cavour meet the requirements of the situation until the end of the second war of independence (1859). Garibaldi supports government action and the preparation of the conflict to expel Austria while Cavour  says the support is for the insurgency the Lombards in order  to provoke war.

 The first disagreements arise shortly after and especially when Cavour gives the birthplace of Garibaldi, Nice, to France, in 1860. And still later, before the death of Cavour, Garibaldi strongly criticized the Italian government, because Cavour wanted to disband the army who participated in Sicily to the victorieuse conquest of the Borbonic reign.

But back to 1859, ladies and gentlemen. Garibaldi,  assumes the defense of Turin from Lake Maggiore with permission to recruit new volunteers. On May 23, he began a brilliant campaign in northern Lombardy. On May 26, he rejects the Austrian general Karl von Urban at Varese and after defeating the Austrian army at the Battle of San Fermo, he served the city of Como. For his actions, he was awarded the gold medal for military valor. Journal of the debates, The Century, The Times and the New York Daily Tribune with  Marx and Engels ' relates, speak regularly of Garibaldi's enterprises.

He continues operations with12 000 volunteers until June,  when he 8 of July 1859, Napoleon III asked an armistice was signed on 20, ending the Second Italian War of Independence.

 Lombardy joined the Kingdom of Sardinia, while Venice is Austrian. Small duchies (Florence, Parma, Bologna, Modena) say their annexation to the Kingdom of Sardinia, and on 10 August, a military league was formed and entrusted to Garibaldi, who accepts after resigning from the Sardinian army.

This position of organizer, which is nothing operational is not suitable Garibaldi Turin sends Manfredo Fanti to replace, he was appointed chief of all the troops and Garibaldi second. Under the authority of Franti, it is then unable to bring the action for which he covets Mazzini supports: attempt an invasion of the Marches and Umbria pontifical. A succession of contradictory decisions leads to resign, November 15, at the request of Victor Emmanuel II.

In April 1860, Garibaldi was asked to take charge of an expedition to support the revolt that began in Palermo, Sicily. After some hesitation, he decided to participate in the invasion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the number of volunteers reached a thousand men, who gave his name to the business legend. Garibaldi is supported with caution by the Government of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

The embarkation of the troops takes place on the night of May 5 to 6 in the port of Quarto, near Genoa, and the journey begins in the disorder due to a departure without ammunition or coal. On May 11, the two vessels, Piemonte and Lombardo arrive in Sicily and landed at Marsala, enjoying the protection of two British ships in the harbor entrance. Néanmoin ships bourbons, as told in his Memoirs Garibaldi, Garibaldi draw on already landed, but without success.

Fighting turn to the advantage of Garibaldi helped by the Sicilians: they won victory  over the troops of Francis II's at  Calatafimi May 15, 1860, seized Palermo May 27 and come to the end of a cons-offensive Neapolitan near the Strait of Messina, Milazzo, July 20.

Since May, Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator (in the Roman sense of the term) in the name of Victor Emmanuel II, and in June, he formed a government. Therefore, Garibaldi continues its conquest of the continent and walking on Naples it takes 7 September 1860.

Cavour organized an expedition to prevent the consolidation of power Garibaldi, fearing that he would form a republic. The Piedmontese troops fight the papal army at Castelfidardo. Garibaldi confronts and defeats the 20,000 soldiers of the Bourbons Volturno.

The plebiscites in Sicily and Naples ratify the annexation of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in Piedmont. October 26, near Teano, Garibaldi Victor Emmanuel II meets and greets him as the King of Italy.

On 9 November 1860, Garibaldi retired to Caprera after refusing all rewards, which fascinates his contemporaries almost as much as his business.

Garibaldi is the real architect of the unification of the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed March 17, 1861. Between the day when inside the Italian parliament after being elected the first Italian parliament, MPs welcomed the standing applauding. This is an opportunity for him to stand, he expressed his disagreement with the refusal of the authorities and particularly Fanti, Minister of War, to integrate southern army volunteers in the regular army.

 Cavour reacts violently demanding, in vain, to House Speaker Rattazzi to recall  Garibaldi order. The meeting was adjourned. Nino Bixio tent in the days following a reconciliation while Cialdini attack violently. Garibaldi, who returned to Caprera, gets partially successful. After a few days, many of its officers and part of the southern army are integrated.

A 'this point, ladies and gentlemen, allow me to inform you that I wrote a novel about the true story of a Sicilian Garibaldi's red shirt.  His name is  Gaspare Nicolosi, who was integrated into the regular army on which he  advanced on career until the degree of colonel!

The granddaughter of the Garibaldian's red shirt Gaspare NIcolosi, who counted me the story, is called Silvia Nicolosi.  She lives in Cagliari and was born in Pavia on 1912! The novel was published with the title "From Sicily to Piedmont with Giuseppe Garibaldi" and is going to see now, its second edition, by another publisher, changing the title to "A  Garibaldian's love," after the title of the musical I have already written with a  Calaritan musician, who will be represented very soon (if we find the financiers for the expenses)!

Cavour died June 6 without relationships with our heroes have improved.
Sad his destiny: he saw the unified Italy and after he died. That's life, as you say, my friends!


...to be continued...

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