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Thursday, August 2, 2012

Life of Giuseppe Garibaldi - Seventh Part


Garibaldi first settles down in Rio de Janeiro, hosted by the small community of Italian exiles and emigrants. With one of these friends, Mr. Rossetti, he embraced a    commercial activity, but the two are not meant for trade and business.

 During this time he chooses to spread revolutionary sentiments among his compatriots, and remains in contact with activists in Europe, Mazzini and his correspondents Ghiglione Antonio and Luigi Canessa.

Garibaldi becomes president of the cell Giovine Italia on the South American continent. It also adheres to the Masonic Lodge Asilo de Vertud.

 It must be said that our hero is now certain a smart man but he did not love so much frames and intrigues of politics or the Masonic meetings where  discussions and  dissertations, were a wasting of time in the evanescence! Thus he adheres to the masonry, because he believes in his ideals but he was born for action that follows the thought, not thinking to the  infinity!


 After September 1835, Bento Gonçalves da Silva proclaims the Republic Riograndense (1836), Garibaldi was ready to fight for the ideals and humanitarian, on May 4, 1837, he received a letter of mark from the government of Rio Grande do Sul, rebel to the authority of the Empire of Brazil.

He defies an empire with his boat named Mazzini. On April 11, 1838, he pushes down a battalion of the Brazilian Imperial Army (Battle of Galpon Xarqueada) and takes part in the next general Davi Canabarro the capture of the port of Laguna, the provincial capital of Santa Caterina, (25 July 1839), which facilitates the creation of the Republic or Republic Catarinense Juliana.

On November 15, the imperial army reconquered the city and the Republicans reappear on the heights where the fighting takes place with varying degrees of success. Garibaldi is involved for the first time in a fight exclusively terrestrial, near Forquillas: he attacks with his sailors and forced his enemies to retreat.

During this period, its mistress Manuela Ferreira de Paula, niece of Bento Gonçalves da Silva, in which he renounces due to the difference in social status.


In 1839, while he is in Laguna, he met Ana Maria de Jesus Ribeiro, barely 18 years old. A romance is born between two young men while Anita is already married to Manuel de Aguiar Durante. She abandons Manual to follow Giuseppe and they married in 1842 after the death of first husband.

In 1841, not seeing a rapid conclusion to the war, and at the request of Francesco Anzani, an exiled Lombard, with whom he befriends and who wants his presence in Uruguay, Garibaldi and his family leave, with permission of Gonçalves, Rio Grande for Montevideo where many foreigners, especially French and Italian.


There, the war between the Uruguayan president Manuel Oribe, who was overthrown but is supported by the government of Buenos Aires of Juan Manuel de Rosas, and the new government headed by General Fructuoso Rivera moved to Montevideo, which has the support Brazil, French and British fleets, and Argentine "unitary" (Partido unitario, liberal-leaning). Declared in December 1838, the war called World War lasted from 1839 to 1851.


Based in Montevideo, Garibaldi teaches mathematics.


The fleet of the Argentine Confederation operates under the command of Admiral William Brown from England, while that Montevideo is under the command of Commodore John Coe of American origin.

The government of Montevideo appealed to Garibaldi.

In Rio de la Plata, the Argentine navy is trying to block the port of Montevideo. On August 16, 1842 a naval battle takes place on the Paraná River near the town of Costa Brava. The vessels commanded by Garibaldi fought by the forces of Brown which means in ships and men are superior. After suffering heavy losses, Garibaldi fire his ships to prevent them falling into the hands of Brown, he managed to take shelter with the surviving crew.


The same year, Garibaldi married Ana Maria de Jesus Ribeiro, whom he met in 1839 and whom he had four children: Domenico Menotti, Rosita, who died in infancy.

...to be continued...

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