last moon

Tuesday, July 31, 2012

The life of Giuseppe Garibaldi- Sixth Part


2) The first exile after the sentence to death (1835-1848);

Before continuing with our history,  ladies gentlemen, we must briefly describe the situation of Brazil and  South America when Garibaldi arrives in Rio de Janeiro. He reigns in 1835 in Brazil e throughout South America a great tension because of the wars of independences and intestine.

After the Napoleonic conquest of Spain, the South American colonies engage in a process of independence that ends with the defeat of Spain. Vice-royalties are divided into a series of independent republics including cisplatin's  Province, the Argentine Confederation, Paraguay.
Regarding Brazil, after the invasion of Portugal by Napoleon, the royal family (who descended from a collateral branch of the Capetins, so this is a millennial dynasty begun by Charlemagne) went into exile in Rio de Janeiro and the colony is elevated to a kingdom. John  The VIth returned to Lisbon because of the liberal revolution of 1820 while his son Pierre became regent of Brazil. In 1822 he became emperor of Brazil under the name of Peter the First. In 1831, he was forced to abdicate in favor of his son Peter the  IInd, to travel to Portugal to restore his daughter to Lisbon usurped by the younger brother of the Emperor Michael I.

Peter II, however, is still a minor (age of majority is set for December 2, 1843).

 Although the Liberals, were able  to make passing a law lowering the age of the majority of Peter II from eighteen to fourteen) a regency was set up but his authority shows its limits. Brazil wins aal three international conflicts (the Plate war, Uruguayan War and the war against Paraguay).

 Believing that granting greater autonomy to provincial and local governments should calm the growing dissent, the General Assembly adopted in 1834 a constitutional amendment called Ato Adicional (Additional Act) which increases their powers. Instead of ending the chaos, this amendment only adds the ambitions and local rivalries. Violence erupts across the country. Political parties of all stripes seek by all means to direct the provincial and municipal governments, and each party took power in a province is also trying to take control of the entire electoral and political system. Parties who lost the election  raise and try to take power by force, causing several revolts, like the war of Farrapos, Cabanagem and Balaiada.

This is the situation that finds our hero in 1835 when he arrives in Rio de Janeiro.

The European dimension that Garibaldi had reached in his lifetime is also expressed in a total and sincere Masonic commitment. Giuseppe Garibaldi, Grand Master of virtually all Italian, persuasions entered the service of Freemasonry and became the figurehead of the secular and anticlerical Italy. In this he was truly the first Mason in Italy, and beyond, a strong supporter of European and universal Masonic ideals.

That's why he is naturally a fight for people who fight for their leisure. We can say that Garibaldi is a son of his time: the ideals of Enlightenment, the Napoleonic revolutional breath, the secrets of Masonry, the desires of freedom and  independency of all peoples in the world, anti-clericalism, applications, liberal instances is all that is meant and he is a close fight for all those who seek and fight for liberty!
...to be continued...

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